The salt springs that would come to define Syracuse were first discovered by Jesuit missionaries back in the 1650s. But it was not a pretty sight. For as far as the eye could see was dark, impenetrable swampland. Ephraim Webster was the first settler of European descent to try and make a go of it here, establishing a trading post near the mouth of the Onondaga Creek in 1786. James Geddes dug the first salt well in 1794 and ten years later, as a member of the State legislature, he obtained funds to build a 10-mile corduroy road across the marshy land to get the salt out to market and kick-start development in the region. Gradually the swamp was drained and soon the Erie Canal arrived. The canal not only facilitated the shipment of salt from the Onondaga Valley but caused farmers to shift production from wheat to more profitable pork and curing pork required salt. Until the brine fields and wells shut down in the early 1900s, almost all of the salt used in the United States came from “The Salt City.”

By the time the villages of Salina and Syracuse were merged to form the City of Syracuse in 1848 there were enough people living here to immediately make the new city one of the fifteen largest in the country. Salt production had fueled the growth but the industrial base quickly diversified. By 1860 Syracuse had several foundries, machine shops and factories producing agricultural implements, boots and shoes, furniture, saddlery, hardware and silverware. It was said a greater variety of products were coming from the city in the heart of the state than from New York City. Charles Dickens, who gave a reading in the Weiting Opera House in 1869 wrote of his experience in the rapidly growing city, “I am here in a most wonderful out-of-the world place, which looks as if it had begun to be built yesterday, and were going to be imperfectly knocked together with a nail or two the day after tomorrow.”

Manufacturing drove Syracuse well into the 20th century with the population peaking at 221,000 in 1950. Today’s population is about 2/3 of that but the metropolitan area has a population of over 700,000. Our walking tour will begin in Clinton Square, the historic center of downtown through which the Erie Canal once flowed and nineteenth-century freight and passengers were transferred to a parade of canal boats arriving at the Packet Dock...

Soldiers and Sailors’ Monument
Clinton Square

 Clinton Square first evolved in the early 1800s when roadways converged in the village. In 1820 the Erie Canal intersected the village crossroads here, and barges unloaded near the old Salina Street Bridge. The Soldiers and Sailors’ Monument honoring Syracuse and Onondaga County Civil War veterans was dedicated on the square in 1910. The Beaux Arts monument was crafted by Clarence Howard Blackwell; the bronze sculptural groups by sculptor Cyrus E. Dallin weren’t ready for the dedication but were installed shortly afterwards.


Jerry Rescue Monument
southwest corner of Clinton Square  

On October 1, 1851 Syracuse played host to New York State Convention of the anti-slavery Liberty Party. Months earlier, Secretary of State Daniel Webster spoke in the city and promised that the new - and controversial - Fugitive Slave Law would be enforced in abolition-friendly enclaves such as Syracuse. He made good on his vow during the convention when federal marshals, accompanied by local gendarmes, arrested a man who called himself Jerry, who was working making salt barrels. The initial charge was thievery but it was soon known that Jerry, also known as William Henry, was apprehended as an escaped slave. An alarmed crowd of abolitionists assembled and battered down the door of the city jail to free Jerry, who was spirited across Lake Ontario into Canada. Nineteen indictments were returned against the rescuers but, despite many public admissions, there was only one conviction and that man died before his case could be heard on appeal. The event was commemorated right from the start around Syracuse; a four-story brick building was renamed the Jerry Rescue Building and after it was razed the story lived on in this 1990 memorial. 

Clinton Exchange
4 Clinton Square

This Neoclassical structure looks out onto Clinton Square through a gently curving portico of stout Doric columns. It was constructed in 1928 to serve several federal masters, the city’s main post office and a district court foremost among them. It has since been transferred to private ownership. 

Post-Standard Building
Clinton Square

 Vivus W. Smith came on board the six-year old Onondaga Journal in 1827 in Onondaga Hill and two years later removed the newspaper to Syracuse where he merged its efforts with the John W. Wyman’s Syracuse Advertiser. On September 10, 1829 the first edition of the newly combined paper hit the streets as the Onondaga Standard. The Syracuse Post first appeared in 1894 and quickly gained traction, so much so that when the papers merged on New Year’s Day 1899 it became the Post-Standard. While the Post-Standard at the time was able to boast of the greatest circulation “than any other daily paper between Greater New York and Rochester” the city was being served by other papers as well. There was the Syracuse Journal and the Evening Herald that merged in 1939 on the centennial anniversary of the Herald and William Randolph Hearst was in town with the Herald American. All were purchased in 1944 by Samuel I. Newhouse and known collectively as the Syracuse Newspapers. The newspapers continued on independently aside from ownership until the Herald-Journal folded in 2001, leaving only the Post-Standard to soldier on.  

Third National Bank
107 James Street at Clinton Square

Archimedes Russell, one of Syracuse’s busiest architects through the Gilded Age blended Trenton pressed brick and Carlisle red sandstone for this Queen Anne vault in 1885. He gave the roofline a parade of steeply pitched gables and a flurry of ornamental touches. Third National Bank picked up its charter in 1864.

Syracuse Savings Bank Building
102 N Salina Street at Clinton Square

Syracuse Savings Bank took its first deposits in 1849 with Syracuse mayor Harvey Baldwin at the head of the organization. Progress at the bank was steady until twenty-five years later it was ready to do something big. A stiff design competition for a new headquarters yielded a local architect, Joseph Lyman Silsbee. Silsbee was only 26 and this was his first major commission but the bank was willing to place its $281,000 bet on his design. Silsbee delivered a variation of High Victorian Gothic richly decorated with bands of red sandstone interspersed with pale buff Ohio sandstone. The 170-foot tall tower, hard by the Erie Canal, was the tallest building in Syracuse. The new bank was ready in 1876. It was the first office building in the city to be built with a passenger elevator and visitors could take a trip to the top for a dime. Silsbee set up shop himself on the top floor and remained until the 1880s when his burgeoning career took him to Chicago where he would employ Frank Lloyd Wright for a time. Syracuse Savings Bank stayed a century longer before it was swallowed by the Fleet/Norstar Financial Group in 1987.

Onondaga County Savings Bank (Gridley) Building
101 E Water Street  

This is the oldest of the three grand old bank buildings that form the eastern wall of Clinton Square, constructed in 1869 for the Onondaga County Savings Bank. Architect Horatio N. White used the popular French Second Empire style of the day, distinguished by its elaborate mansard roofline. The entire building was constructed with Onondaga limestone. Typical of commercial buildings along the Erie Canal, the side facing the water is bereft of ornamentation. After the bank moved across the street in 1897 the building was sold to businessman Frances Gridley. In the 1970s the century-old bank with its landmark four-faced clock tower staved off execution and became a pioneer in adaptive re-use in Syracuse.

Onandaga Savings Bank
101 S Salina Street at E Water Street

This ten-story Renaissance-inspired structure was one of Syracuse’s first steel frame skyscrapers when it appeared on the streetscape in 1897. The architect was English-born Robert Gibson who began his career by besting the legendary Henry Hobson Richardson for the Cathedral of All Saints in Albany but the star of the former bank is its richly ornate interior created by Angelo Magnanti, who did the inside work on the United States Supreme Court Building.  The ceiling was painted as a Depression-era public works project by William Schwartz, a local artist, with a replica of an Old World astronomer’s map. He added a series of ten arched murals depicting important events in the history of Onondaga County. 


Gere Bank Building
121 E Water Street

Charles Erastus Colton was among the city’s finest architects and this is among his finest buildings. Built in 1894, Colton’s design was an adaptation of the popular design of the new skyscrapers of the day that approximated the look of a classical column with an ornate base (the ground floors), a relatively unadorned shaft (the middle floors) and a crown (the cornice). It was built as a bank for former mayor and then United States Congressman James J. Belden who then named it after his father-in-law, Robert Gere. 

Phoenix Buildings
123-129 E Water Street

Several stripped-down Greek Revival commercial buildings from the 1830s survive on Hanover Square. These old brick canal warehouses were known as the Phoenix Buildings since they rose from the ashes of earlier wooden structures on the site.


Flagship Securities Building
120 E Genesee Street  

Built for the defunct Bank of Syracuse in 1896, this was the first steel-frame structure to rise in the city. Local architect Albert L. Brockway was a student of the influential ノcole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France and he provided the bank with a highly ornate marble facade. Hidden in the pedimented entranceways on either side are replicas of coins from the the 2,700-year old Greek showcase city of Syracuse now in modern-day Sicily.   

Post Standard Building
136 E Genesee Street

 This 1880 building was taken over by the newly merged Syracuse Post-Standard in 1899. Its Romanesque influences can be detected in its dominant arch and fenestration. 

Larned Building
114 S Warren Street at Genesee Street  

This brick office block was one of Syracuse’s most desirable business addresses after it was finished in the fashionable French Second Empire style in 1869. The structure was originally crowned with a tell-tale mansard roof but it was later converted into a full floor; the Second Empire style can still be discerned, however, from the ornate cast-iron window caps. The building was designed by Horatio Nelson White for the sons of Captain Samuel Larned who made a fortune on the Erie Canal and built a hotel on this site in 1830; it would be destroyed by fire. In 1990, a crumbling Larned Building was converted into a parking garage with retail space on the ground floor while retaining the facade.

S.A. & K. Building
201 E Washington Street at Warren and Genesee streets

This triangular flatiron-style building was constructed with four floors by Amos Phelps Granger, a captain in the War of 1812 and a United States Congressman. Phelps died in 1866 at the age of 77, however, and did not see the completion of what became known as the Granger Block. In the 1890s an additional three stories were added to the Renaissance Revival office building - the new floors can easily be picked out today by the dividing belt course and the different window treatment. In 1898 the law firm of Sedgwick, Andrews & Kennedy purchased the building, and it became known as the S.A. & K. Building and is today a municipally owned property called City Hall Commons.


State Tower Building
109 S Warren Street

Here is the tallest building in the city and Syracuse’s finest Art Deco structure. The verticality of the 23-story office building is emphasized with vertical stripes of windows and the top floors of the 312-foot skyscraper are arranged in a series of setbacks. Brass and ceramic chevrons decorate the entrance. The architectural firm of Thompson and Churchill came out from New York City to direct the construction of the tower that was completed in 1928.

Grange Building
203 E Water Street at Warren Street  

This four-story brown brick building was built in 1925 as an early automobile dealership, displaying Chevrolets for Bresee Chevrolet that had started in business in 1922. The dealership remains active today in Liverpool.


Erie Canal Museum
318 Erie Boulevard E at Montgomery Street

The original Erie Canal and the Enlarged Erie Canal ran through the heart of Syracuse. Today the historic waterway is Erie Boulevard and the Greek Revival building that stands at its edge dates to 1850. In its day, boats and barges were weighed and inspected here to determine tolls; they rested on a scale while the water was drained from the lock. Tolls were abolished in 1883 but the lock was still used for dry dock repairs and the weighlock building utilized as a canal office. Since 1962 the brick structure, the last of seven weighlocks on the canal, has done duty as the Erie Canal Museum.

Bullhead Boat
Erie Canal Museum
318 Erie Boulevard E  

Boats that plied the Erie Canal were designed according to their function. Narrow packet boats carried only passengers. This bullhead boat carried perishable items and was suitable to withstand the pounding of waves on the Great Lakes. They were powered by animals on the canal and tugs on the open water. Nathan Roberts was a celebrated canal engineer responsible for building five double locks in Lockport that required using a new blasting powder from the DuPont Company to conquer the rock walls of western New York.


City Hall
233 E. Washington Street at Montgomery Street

After being incorporated as a city in 1848 market stalls were converted into municipal offices and this arrangement served as City Hall for the next 40 years. In anticipation of a new facility a design competition was held in 1889 with eight local architects submitting plans; Charles E. Colton won. He borrowed heavily from the concepts of Henry Hobson Richardson, America’s most influential architect of the late 1800s, by adapting a medieval Romanesque style with rough-cut limestone, truncated pillars, triple arches and a dominant tower. City Hall has undergone relatively few changes over the years, although the main entrance has switched sides since it originally faced the Erie Canal.

Hills Building
217 Montgomery Street

In the 1920s, following a building boom of skyscrapers for 25 years in New York City, builders were required to outfit their high rises with roofline setbacks to allow sunlight to reach the sidewalks of the urban canyons. The technique most famously manifested itself in the Empire State Building and Chrysler Building. The Hills Building, designed by Melvin King in the Gothic style and erected in 1928, is a local example of a 12-story building using setbacks. It carries the name of Clarence Hills, one of the town’s leading real estate developer in the early 1900s. Look up on the south facade to see Syracuse’s best gargoyle. 

St. Paul’s Episcopal Cathedral
310 Montgomery Street at Fayette Street

This is the third meetinghouse for the congregation that organized in 1826, all located within an area of two blocks. English-born architect Henry Dudley, known as a champion of the English Gothicstyle, created one of his most noteworthy churches here in 1885. Constructed of gray Onondaga limestone, the composition is topped by a 225-foot spire surmounted by a seven-foot cross. The church, little altered since its inception, was designated a cathedral in 1972.

Onondaga Historical Association Museum
321 Montgomery Street  

This handsome five-story red brick building was an early home of the telephone company; the fifth floor was occupied by the telephone operators and switchboards. Henry Wilkenson provided the Italian Renaissance design. Since 1906 it has served as the headquarters for the Onondaga Historical Association with one of the nation’s largest regional collections.  

Onondaga County Public Library
335 Montgomery Street  

Steel tycoon Andrew Carnegie funded the building of more than 2,500 libraries in the early 1900s and this was one of them. Carnegie’s gift of $200,000 enabled local architect James A. Randall to use loads of granite and Italian marble in his Baroque Revival creation. The first books were checked out in 1905 and the building served for a century as the flagship of the library system before the collection was moved to the Galleries of Syracuse. 

First Baptist Church/Mizpah Tower
215 E Jefferson Street at Montgomery Street

The Baptists organized in Syracuse in 1821, eventually evolving into the First Baptist and Central Baptist congregations. The two consolidated in 1910 and Gordon Wright designed this English Gothic church that was ready two years later. Wright used Canterbury Cathedral as his inspiration and gave the church a prominent corner tower with elaborate tracery and pinnacles. The three floors above the church were originally connected to the YMCA building next door. In the 1940s the connection was closed and the space converted into a regular hotel. The church eventually assumed management of the commercial enterprise as well, naming it the Mizpah Tower, said to mean “temporary rest under the tower.” The First Baptist congregation departed in 1988 and the building has dodged destruction awaiting re-purposing. 


Columbus Statue and Fountain
Columbus Circle

When this 11-foot bronze rendering of Christopher Columbus was unveiled in 1934 it attracted a crowd of 40,000 people. Donated by Italian societies throughout the city, the statue was sculpted in Florence, Italy by Lorenzo Baldi.  Dwight James Baur, who supervised the entire project, created the fountain. The Genoan explorer faces west as he did when he sailed to America.

Fourth County Courthouse
421 Montgomery Street on Columbus Circle

This monumental Beaux Arts structure of stone and marble occupies an entire block. The cornerstone was laid in 1904 and proceeded on plans drawn by Syracuse architects Archimedes Russell and Melvin King who provided for a classical projecting portico, a balustraded roof and a copper dome on top. Four murals by William Dodge depict incidents in the lives of Onandagan Indians Minnehaha, Hiawatha, Pere LeMoyne and Asa Danforth.

Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception
258 E Onondaga Street on Columus Circle  

The Cathedral traces its beginnings to the formation of the St. Mary’s Church in 1841. The Victorian Gothic church constructed of Onondaga limestone came along in 1886. The tower, a later addition by Archimedes Russell, has never actually held a heavy bell but electronic Flemish carillons fill Columbus Square with music. In 1904 St. Mary’s was named the Cathedral Church of the Central New York Roman Catholic Diocese. 


Plymouth Congregational Church
232 E Onondaga Street

The congregation formed in 1853 amidst anti-slavery fervor and early pastors Michael Strieby and Augustus Beard, ardent abolitionist both, named the church after Plymouth Church in Brooklyn where the fiery Henry Ward Beecher was delivering America’s most impassioned anti-slavery sermons. The church was constructed in 1859 on plans by architect Horatio N. White. The building has lost its steeple and a quartet of turrets over the years but the elegance of White’s design survives.

Hotel Syracuse
500 S Warren Street  

George B. Post, one of America’s leading hotel architects, designed Syracuse’s premier guest house in the Neo-Colonial style. When it opened in 1924 the Hotel Syracuse featured 612 rooms and included its own emergency hospital. Retail shops lined the street level and tennis and squash courts were located on the roof. Its fortunes have not been so cheery in the 21st century as the landmark hotel has battled bankruptcy and faces an uncertain future. 


Galleries of Syracuse
441 S Salina Street

The centerpiece project of downtown Syracuse’s revitalization, the Galleries of Syracuse were created by the architectural firm of King & King, the oldest architectural firm in New York State and the fifth oldest in the country. Founded in 1868, the firm is responsible for the County Courthouse and a number of notable buildings on the Syracuse University campus, including Manley Field House and Bird Library. 

WFBL Building
431-433 S Warren Street

This splash of sleek Art Deco in downtown Syracuse was once the home of WFBL Radio. The call letters have nothing to do with Syracuse or Central New York but rather stand for “First Broadcast License” as the station was the first FCC-licensed radio station to sign on in central New York in 1922. In 1927 WFBL became one of the 16 charter stations of the CBS Radio Network. The property has not had a regular tenant since the 1980s when Meltzers III restaurant, whose sign is still affixed, departed and is in imminent danger of demolition.


Landmark Theatre
362 S Salina Street

In the Golden Age of silent films in the 1920s movie lovers could walk down Salina Street and sample what was playing at the Empire or the Stand or Keith’s or Temple or the Eckel. Marcus Loew wanted a piece of the action but when a deal for the Empire Theatre fell through he set out to build the city’s largest theater with 3,000 seats and an eight-story office tower. He spent $1.9 million for the land and another $1.4 million for Syracuse’s “last word in theatrical ornateness and luxuriousness.” He hired the country’s leading theater architect, Thomas Lamb (he had already done three theaters on Salina Street), to transport movie goer into and exotic world with a wealth of colors and materials – marble, terrazzo, tapestries, filigrial chandeliers, and expensive furnishings. Loew’s State Theatre opened in 1928 and would thrill movie-goers for almost a half-century before it went the way of most downtown movie palaces and closed in 1975 - but not before a Citizen’s Committee to Save Loew’s was formed. The Syracuse Area Landmark Theatre, or SALT, was formed to preserve and renovate the venue and has done so ever since. 


Jefferson Street Armory
Armory Square   

Abraham Walton was the first person to own this land, ponying up $6,550 for 250 acres in this area in 1804 that came to be known as the Walton tract. Walton built a millpond here that was eventually filled in to get rid of mosquitoes and became Jefferson Park. And in 1859 it became an armory designed by Horatio White to house troops destined for the Civil War. When the armory burned White designed a second in 1874 and today is actually three buildings used to quarter the cavalry and the infantry. By 1900 the area was teeming with activity with more than twenty hotels in the neighborhood catering to the business brought in by the railroads. With the demise of the railroads after World War II the hotels left and many buildings were vacated or dismantled. But many remain and they have been revived as restaurants and specialty shops making Armory Square one of New York State’s best successes of urban renaissance.


Shot Clock Monument
Armory Square  

This clock honors the rule that changed basketball and saved the National Basketball Association. The 24-Second shot clock, which put an end to stalling tactics that were threatening the league, was used for the first time in an N A scrimmage organized by Danny Biasone on August 10, 1954 at Blodgett Vocational High School in Syracuse. In the first game with the clock, league scoring would rise by 13.6 points per game. Coach Howard Hobson of Oregon and Yale is credited with the original idea, and many helped Biasone to bring the clock to fruition in Syracuse, notably Emil Barboni and Leo Ferris. It was Ferris and Biasone who devised a formula for the shot clock, selecting “24” by dividing 2,880 (the number of seconds in a 48-minute game) by 120 (the average number of shots in a game). The original shot clock is at LeMoyne College, is 25% smaller in size with one clock face. The league that the shot clock saved had begun with several franchises in medium-sized cities, of which Syracuse was one. In the first year after the shot clock had been installed, the Syracuse Nationals, led by all-time forward Dolph Schayes, won the NBA championship. In 1963 the Nats departed for Philadelphia, the last of the small markets to surrender its team to the big city. 


Bentley-Settle Building
120-124 Walton Street  

This six-story 1895 brick warehouse was constructed for the use of R.E. Bentley’s wholesale grocer business. The trade continued until 1973 when the building, sporting fine ornamental brickwork, was converted into artist studios. 

Neal & Hyde Building
318 S Clinton Street  

Roger Starr Sperry, William Neal and Salem Hyde joined forces to pick up the pieces of Charles Chadwick’s dry goods and notions business after Chadwick passed in 1878. Local architect Asa Merrick designed this warehouse for the new firm in 1883 with wide, beefy arches and rough-faced stone trim characteristic of the Richardsonian Romanesque style. Still an impressive edifice it was once even more so - soaring gable towers were exorcised from th eroofline in the mid-1900s. William Neal’s wife, Harriet, was the sister of L. Frank Baum, creator of the “The Wizard of Oz.” 

Donohue Building
312 S Clinton Street  

Physician Florence Q. Donohue built this splendid Queen Anne building as an office and a residence in 1885. Scarecly an inch of the arched window-dominated facade is not decorated with either rusticated stone, brick or terra-cotta. After the doctor’s death the building did time as a bakery and endured some twenty years of vacancy before being re-adapted. 


McCarthy Block
217 S Salina Street at E Fayette Street  

The great dry goods business of the McCarthy’s was the first in Syracuse as Thomas McCarthy won prominence as a merchant and salt manufacturer in 1808. The first McCarthy store in the downtown district was known as the “Mammoth Store.” it would burn in 1855. The current McCarthy Block was constructed in 1894 and was considered one of the finest in the city. The building was named one of the top four buildings built in New York State during the 19th century, and was the first fireproof building in Syracuse. If Rip Van Winkle dozed off when the McCarthys sold the building in 1905 opened and awoke today he would not notice much change. But for many years the building was clad in white panels as it operated as Hunter Tappen, and later as the Lincoln Department Store. Only a complete renovation in the 1990s allowed the classic brick architecture and ornate window treatments to emerge again.


Key Bank
201 S Warren Street at Washington Street  

This serious looking Neoclassical building with fluted Corinthian pilasters marching around dates to 1914 and masks a colorful history of this site. The first structure here was a frame dwelling built in 1824 by General Jonas Mann. The place was later a saloon operated by a German immigrant named Seigle. On New Year’s Day 1844 several toughs from Salina came into the bar, purportedly bent on mischief. A brawl broke out, shotes were fired and the Syracuse Cadets, the local militia, were called to end the row. When the cadets had departed the mob ransacked the house and made a bonfire of all of the furniture; Seigle sold out shortly afterwards and moved on to Milwaukee. The building then became a coffee house, first Welch’s and then Cook’s, and gained a reputation as the most popular eating house in Syracuse. In 1867 the old building was hauled to the corner of Montgomery and Jackson streets and John Cook erected a hotel in its stead. He named it the Vanderbilt House in honor of the world’s richest man, Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt to give the enterprise some hefty street cred. The Commodore was reportedly so well pleased with this honor that he sent Cook a fine engraving of himself that was proudly displayed. 


University Block
120 E Washington Street at S Warren Street  

Green & Wicks, Buffalo’s most famous architects, came east to build this Renaissance Revival high rise for Syracuse University in 1897. Eliphalet Remington II, whose father’s rifles had armed the Union forces in the Civil War, donated the land. The project was intended to bea combined commercial venture and quarters for the University’s Law School. The University sold the 142-foot tower in 1973. This block between Warren and Salina streets was the site of first railroad station in Syracuse in what was known asVanderbilt Square, named for Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt. The depot was demolished in 1870 and a new one contructed two blocks to the west. The railroad tracks would not be removed from Washington Street util 1936.

White Memorial Building
201 S Salina Street and E Washington Street  

Horace White was born in nearby Homer on April 19, 1802, and in 1838 moved to Syracuse. His brother Hamilton followed in 1839. Horace was quickly immersed in the Syracuse business community, involved in, among other ventures, the Geddes Coarse Salt Company. He founded the Bank of Syracuse while Hamilton was an officer with the Onondaga County Bank. The two brothers helped organize the Syracuse and Utica Railroad that became a part of the great New York Central. The Whites both died in the 1860s, leaving behind a legacy of industriousness and generosity that would continue through subsequent generations. The White Memorial Building was built by in 1876 by the children of Hamilton and Horace White. Architect Joseph Lyman Silsbee created the great High Victorian Gothic pile of Ohio sandstone and Onondaga granite and brick on one of the most prominent corners in town. A recent restoration removed decades of soot and revealed the decorative bands of red and black that distinguished the multi-use building.